Mr. T's Science Scene

Eukaryotes, Prokaryotes and Cell Organelles

As we move into cell parts it is important to distinguish between two types of cells.  Those two types of cells are:


Eukaryotes- have a nucleus and complicated organelles.

     a.  (you)karyotes. . . You (humans) have eukaryotic cells.

     b.  Have a nucleus and DNA (inside the nucleus)

     c.  Have the following cell parts:  cell membrane, cytoskeleton, cytoplasm, nucleus, mitochondria, ribosomes, endoplasmic reticulum (ER), golgi,

          vacuoles, lysosomes, cell wall (plants), chloroplast (plants)

     d.  All living things EXCEPT bacteria/viruses


Prokaryotes- do NOT have a nucleus and only have a few parts.

      a.  Oldest and most abundant life on the planet!

      b.  Do not have a nucleus but do have floating DNA

      c.  Have the following cell parts:  cell membrane, cytoskeleton, cytoplasm, ribosomes


Cell Parts: Here is a great site to go to Cells Alive


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Cell Membrane:  The cell membrane is responsible for regulating what goes into and comes out of the cell.  It also give the cell shape and protects the cell.

Life Traits: The best life trait(s) for the organelle is RESPONSE/REACTION to the environment (both external and internal)

Organelle Interactions:  The organelles the cell membrane interacts with best are the golgi and the cytoplasm.


Cytoplasm:  The cytoplasm is not technically an organelle; its the fluid inside the cell.  The cytoplasm serves to cushion all the other organelles- which float around in it and it is also where ALL the nutrients, elements, compounds, molecules are which the cell needs to function.

Life Traits: The best life trait(s) for the organelle is HOMEOSTASIS, METABOLISM, and REPRODUCITON.

Organelle Interactions:  The organelles the cytoplasm interacts with best are all organelles.


Cytoskeleton (LE):  The cytoskeleton is an internal scaffold or frame that gives the cell its shape and helps to move different organelles around the inside of the cell.

Life Traits: The best life trait(s) for the organelle is GROWTH.

Organelle Interactions:  The organelles the cytoskeleton interacts with best are all organelles.


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Nucleus:  The nucleus is the "brains" of the cell.  It controls all aspects of the cell's living.  It contains all the DNA needed to make a new cell or a new organism.

Life Traits: The best life trait(s) for the organelle is DNA, EVOLUTION, HOMEOSTASIS, GROWTH, and REPRODUCTION.

Organelle Interactions:  The organelles the nucleus interacts with best are ribosomes and ER.


Vacuole:  The vacuoles are storage organelles.  The store a variety of stuff- especially WATER.

Life Traits: The best life trait(s) for the organelle is HOMEOSTASIS and METABOLISM.

Organelle Interactions:  The organelles the vacuoles interacts with best are cytoplasm.

Lysosome (LE):  The lysosomes are involved in the "digestion" and breaking down of large molecules and old cell parts with enzymes.

Life Traits: The best life trait(s) for the organelle is HOMEOSTASIS and REACTION.

Organelle Interactions:  The organelles the lysosomes interacts with best are cytoplasm.

Mitochondria:  The mitchondria are the "power houses" of the cell.  They convert sugar (glucose) into useable energy for the cell and the organism.  The do this by "burning" the sugar in the presence of oxygen.

Life Traits: The best life trait(s) for the organelle is METABOLISM, DNA, and HOMEOSTASIS.

Organelle Interactions:  The organelles the mitochondria interacts with best are cytoplasm and chloroplasts.


Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER):  The ER is a series of internal tubes that transport substances within the cell from area to area.  They are aslo involved with the production of lipids (fats) and proteins (rought ER through ribosomes).

Life Traits: The best life trait(s) for the organelle is GROWTH and HOMEOSTASIS.

Organelle Interactions:  The organelles the ER interacts with best are golgi, ribosomes, cell membrane, and nucleus.


Ribosomes:  The ribosomes make proteins by reading DNA (RNA) and hooking up amino acids together in a specific pattern.  All life is made up of proteins so ribosomes make up all life!

Life Traits: The best life trait(s) for the organelle is REPRODUCTION, EVOLUTION, DNA, and GROWTH.

Organelle Interactions:  The organelles the ribosomes interacts with best are ER and the nucleus.


Golgi:  The golgi are know as golgi bodies, golgi complex, and golgi apparatus.  The function of the golgi is tp package and export OUT of the cell various cell substances such as proteins, complex molecules, and waste.

Life Traits: The best life trait(s) for the organelle is HOMEOSTASIS and REACTION.

Organelle Interactions:  The organelles the golgi interacts with best are ER and the cell membrane.


Cell Wall:  The cell wall is found ONLY IN PLANTS (and some bacteria).  It gives stength and form to the plant cell and protects the cell.  Likewise, the cell wall give suppot, strength, and form to the plant itself.

Life Traits: The best life trait(s) for the organelle is HOMEOSTASIS, GROWTH, and REACTION.

Organelle Interactions:  The organelles the cell wall interacts with best is the cell membrane.



Chloroplast:  Since the plant is unable to move around to get food, it uses the chloroplast to turn sunlight, carbon dioxied, and water into sugar.  This sugare is then used in the mitochondria to produce energy.  The conversion of light into glucose is called photosynthesis!

Life Traits: The best life trait(s) for the organelle is HOMEOSTASIS and METABOLISM.  

Organelle Interactions:  The organelles the cell wall interacts with best is the mitochondria.